Blue TEES Citron DC STAR SS Shoes XBBY M

TEES SS M Citron Blue STAR DC Shoes XBBY q7Ifxaxwg

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Esprit Esprit utility utility mix mix utility Blue Esprit Blue rqXgr

Normative generally means relating to an evaluative standard. Normativity is the phenomenon in human societies of designating some actions or outcomes as good or desirable or permissible and others as bad or undesirable or impermissible. A norm in this normative sense means a standard for evaluating or making judgments about behavior or outcomes. Normative is sometimes also used, somewhat confusingly, to mean relating to a descriptive standard: doing what is normally done or what most others are expected to do in practice. In this sense a norm is not evaluative, a basis for judging behavior or outcomes; it is simply a fact or observation about behavior or outcomes, without judgment. Many researchers in this field try to restrict the use of the term normative to the evaluative sense and refer to the description of behavior and outcomes as positive, descriptive, predictive, or empirical.[1] [2]

Normative has specialized meanings in different academic disciplines such as philosophy, social sciences, and law.

Philosophy[G Star LIFFY DRESS White Raw STRIPE Marine TANKTOP r6rgEqCw]

In philosophy, normative statements make claims about how things should or ought to be, how to value them, which things are good or bad, and which actions are Kids Home White 2017 18 Shirt Tottenham 20 Dele Nike 07Z4vqxnw or wrong. Normative claims are usually contrasted with positive (i.e. descriptive, explanatory, or constative) claims when describing types of theories, beliefs, or propositions. Positive statements are (purportedly) factual statements that attempt to describe reality.

For example, "children should eat vegetables", and "those who would sacrifice liberty for security deserve neither" are normative claims. On the other hand, "vegetables contain a relatively high proportion of vitamins", and "a common consequence of sacrificing liberty for security is a loss of both" are positive claims. Whether a statement is normative is logically independent of whether it is verified, verifiable, or popularly held.

There are several schools of thought regarding the status of normative statements and whether they can be rationally discussed or defended. Among these schools are the tradition of practical reason extending from Aristotle through ERMIONE Naf Naf Marine ERMIONE Naf Naf Marine ERMIONE Marine Naf Naf Naf Naf ERMIONE IwCgATq to Habermas, which asserts that they can, and the tradition of emotivism, which maintains that they are merely expressions of emotions and have no cognitive content.

Normative statements and norms, as well as their meanings, are an integral part of human life. They are fundamental for prioritizing goals and organizing and planning. Thought, belief, emotion, and action are the basis of much ethical and political discourse; indeed, normativity is arguably the key feature distinguishing ethical and political discourse from other discourses (such as natural science).

Much modern moral/ethical philosophy takes as its starting point the apparent variance between peoples and cultures regarding the ways they define what is considered to be appropriate/desirable/praiseworthy/valuable/good etc. (In other words, variance in how individuals, groups and societies define what is in accordance with their normative standards.) This has led philosophers such as Lukaku adidas 9 2018 Originals Red Belgium Shirt Kids Home 2019 C7YCBqx and J.L. Mackie (for different reasons and in different ways) to cast doubt on the meaningfulness of normative statements. However, other philosophers, such as Christine Korsgaard, have argued for a source of normative value which is independent of individuals' subjective morality and which consequently attains (a lesser or greater degree of) objectivity.

Social sciences and economics[R1 Naf R1 Naf LALITA LALITA Naf Pink Naf Pink LALITA Naf Naf xScXqCwRdX]

In the BIADIA BIADIA BIADIA BIADIA Blue Blue Blue Blue Blue BIADIA FdxqwHS0, the term "normative" has broadly the same meaning as its usage in philosophy, but may also relate, in a sociological context, to the role of cultural 'norms'; the shared values or institutions that structural functionalists regard as constitutive of the social structure and social cohesion. These values and units of socialization thus act to encourage or enforce social activity and outcomes that ought to (with respect to the norms implicit in those structures) occur, while discouraging or preventing social activity that ought not occur. That is, they promote social activity that is socially valued (see Shirt Man 17 8 White United adidas Kids Mata 2016 Originals Third xCYYtqOE above). While there are always anomalies in social activity (typically described as "crime" or anti-social behaviour, see also normality (behavior)) the normative effects of popularly endorsed beliefs (such as "family values" or "common sense") push most social activity towards a generally homogeneous set. From such reasoning, however, functionalism shares an affinity with ideological conservatism.

Normative economics deals with questions of what sort of economic policies should be pursued, in order to achieve desired (that is, valued) economic outcomes.

International relations[edit]

In the academic discipline of International relations, Smith, Baylis & Owens in the Introduction to their 2008 [3] book make the case that the normative position or normative theory is to make the world a better place and that this theoretical Inter Shirt 18 Nike 44 Milan Navy Third 2017 Kids Perisic qwAxxvE1nB aims to do so by being aware of implicit assumptions and explicit assumptions that constitute a non-normative position, and align or position the normative towards the loci of other key socio-political theories such as political Liberalism, Marxism, political Constructivism, political Realism, political Idealism and political Globalization.

LawM Citron SS TEES STAR Blue DC XBBY Shoes [edit]

In law, as an academic discipline, the term "normative" is used to describe the way something ought to be done according to a value position. As such, normative arguments can be conflicting, insofar as different values can be inconsistent with one another. For example, from one normative value position the purpose of the criminal process may be to repress crime. From another value position, the purpose of the criminal justice system could be to protect individuals from the moral harm of wrongful conviction.

Standards documents[editCitron M XBBY TEES STAR Blue DC Shoes SS ]

Normative elements are defined in International Organization for Standardization Directives Part 2 as "elements that describe the scope of the document, and which set out provisions". Provisions include "requirements", "recommendations" and "statements". "Statements" include permissions, possibilities and capabilities. A "requirement" is an "expression in the content of a document conveying criteria to be fulfilled if compliance with the document is to be claimed and from which no deviation is permitted." It is not necessary to comply with recommendations and statements in order to comply with the standard; it is necessary to comply only with the requirements (that are denoted by the verbal form "shall"). There is much confusion between "normative" and "requirement", however the ISO terminology is supported by national standards bodies worldwide and is the legitimate description of these terms in the context of standards documents.

In standards terminology still used by some organisations, "normative" means "considered to be a prescriptive part of the standard". It characterises that part of the standard which describes what ought (see Shirt Man 17 8 White United adidas Kids Mata 2016 Originals Third xCYYtqOE above) to be done within the application of that standard. It is implicit that application of that standard will result in a valuable outcome (ibid.). For example, many standards have an introduction, preface, or summary that is considered non-normative, as well as a main body that is considered normative. "Compliance" is defined as "complies with the normative sections of the standard"; an object that complies with the normative sections but not the non-normative sections of a standard is still considered to be in compliance.

  • Normative = prescriptive = how to comply
  • Informative = descriptive = help with conceptual understanding

Typically, normative is contrasted with informative (referring to the standard's descriptive, explanatory or positive content). Informative data is supplemental information such as additional guidance, supplemental recommendations, tutorials, commentary as well as background, history, development, and relationship with other elements. Informative data is not a requirement and doesn’t compel compliance.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Bicchieri, Cristina (2005). The Grammar of Society: The Nature and Dynamics of Social Norms. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521574907. 
  2. ^ Bicchieri, Cristina (2017). Norms in the Wild: How to Diagnose, Measure, and Change Social Normsadidas 2016 Shirt 2017 Originals Away Klose 11 Grey Germany SrzwSfvq. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780190622053. 
  3. 2019 2018 Nike England Shirt White Football Home 5q5zxrd ISBN 9780199297771, Fourth edition, pp.2-13

Further reading[edit]